Admission Opened for Online classes of Optional Malayalam literature 2021.

Classes starts on November 25th 2020.

Features of MALAYALAM OPTIONAL Course:- 

  • Complete Coverage of Syllabus in 3 Months

  • Answer Writing Practice for each Unit

  • Previous Year Question Discussion after every class

  • Probable Question Prediction and discussion

  • Personal Mentoring

  • Class notes (Handwritten and PDFs)

Malayalam Literature Syllabus – Civil Services Mains Exam UPSC :

Optional Subject consists of 2 papers. Each paper is of 250 marks, making a total of 500 marks.



(Answers must be written in Malayalam Section-A)

Unit 1-Early phase of Malayalam Language:

1.1 Various theories: origin from proto Dravidian, Tamil, Sanskrit.

1.2 Relation between Tamil and Malayalam: Six nayas of A.R. Rajarajavarma.

1.3 Pattu school-definition, Ramacharitam, later pattu works-Niranam works and Krishnagatha.


Unit 2-Linguistic features of:

2.1   Manipravalam-definition. Language of early manipravala works-Champu, Sandesakavya, Chandrotsava, minor works. Later Manipravala works-medieval Champu and Attakkatha.

2.2 Folklore-Southern and Northern ballads, Mappila songs.

2.3      Early Malayalam prose-Bhashakautaliyam, Brahmandapuranam, Attaprakaram, Kramadipika and Nambiantamil.


Unit 3-Standardisation of Malayalam:

3.1 Peculairities of the language of Pana, Kilippattu and Tullal.

3.2 Contributions of indigenous and European missionaries to Malayalam.

3.3 Characteristics of contemporary Malayalam: Malayalam as administravie language. Language of scientific and technical literature-media language.



Literary History

Unit-4 Ancient and Medieval Literature:

4.1 Pattu-Ramacharitam, Niranam works and Krishnagatha.

4.2 Manipravalam-early and medieval manipravala works including attakkatha and champu.

4.3 Folk literature.

4.4 Kilippattu, Tullal and Mahakavya.


Unit 5- Modern Literature-Poetry:

5.1 Venmani poets and contemporaries.

5.2 The advent of Romanticism-Poerty of Kavitraya i.e., Asan, Ulloor and Vallathol

5.3 Poetry after Kavitraya.

5.4 Modernism in Malayalam poetry.


Unit 6- Modern Literature-Prose:

6.1 Drama

6.2 Novel

6.3 Short story

6.4 Biography, travelogue, essay and criticism.



(Answers must be written in Malayalam)

This paper will require first hand reading of the texts prescribed and is designed to test the candidate’s critical ability.


Unit 1

1.1 Ramacharitam-Patalam 1.

1.2 Kannassaramayanam-Balakandam first 25 stanzas.

1.3 Unnunilisandesam-Purvabhagam 25 slokas including Prastavana

1.4 Mahabharatham Kilippattu-Bhishmaparvam.


Unit 2

2.1 Kumaran Asan-Chintavisthayaya Sita.

2.2 Vailoppilli-Kutiyozhikkal.

2.3 G. Sankara Kurup-Perunthachan.

2.4 N.V. Krishna Variar-Tivandiyile Pattu.


Unit 3

3.1 ONV -Bhumikkoru Charamagitam

3.2 Ayyappa Panicker-Kurukshetram.

3.3 Akkittam-Pandatha Messanthi

3.4 Attur Ravivarma-Megharupan.



Unit 4

4.1 O. Chanthu Menon-Indulekha

4.2 Thakazhy-Chemmin.

4.3 O V Vijayan-Khasakkinte Ithihasam.


Unit 5

5.1 MT Vasudevan Nair-Vanaprastham (Collection).

5.2 N S Madhavan-Higvitta (Collection).

5.3 C J. Thomas-1128-il Crime 27.


Unit 6

6.1 Kuttikrishna Marar-Bharataparyatanam

6.2 M. K Sanu-Nakshatrangalute snehabhajanam

6.3 V.T. Bhattathirippad-Kannirum Kinavum.

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